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In cast iron, residual stresses normally arise due to hindered thermal contraction, meaning that they are associated with the presence of constraints that prevent the natural, free volumetric variation of the material upon solid-state cooling. This article explains their mechanism of formation by introducing the scalar relation, known as the additive strain decomposition. The main factors influencing casting deformation are volume changes during solidification and cooling, phase transformations, alloy composition, thermal gradients, casting geometry, and mold stability. The article reviews the dimensional stability in cast iron and discusses macroscopic and microscopic stresses in cast iron.

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Tito Andriollo, Nikolaj Vedel-Smith, Jesper Thorborg, Jesper Hattel, Internal Casting Stresses and Dimensional Stability, Cast Iron Science and Technology, Vol 1A, ASM Handbook, Edited By Doru M. Stefanescu, ASM International, 2017, p 511–515,

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