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This article discusses criteria that can be used for the classification of cast iron: fracture aspect, graphite shape, microstructure of the matrix, commercial designation, and mechanical properties. It addresses the main factors of influence on the structure of cast iron, including chemical composition, cooling rate, and heat treatment. The article describes some basic principles of cast iron metallurgy. It discusses the main effects of the chemical composition of ductile iron and compacted graphite (CG) iron. The composition of malleable irons must be selected in such a way as to produce a white as-cast structure and to allow for fast annealing times. Some typical compositions of malleable irons are presented in a table. The article concludes with information on special cast irons.

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Doru M. Stefanescu, Classification and Basic Types of Cast Iron, Cast Iron Science and Technology, Vol 1A, ASM Handbook, Edited By Doru M. Stefanescu, ASM International, 2017, p 12–27,

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