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This article discusses the production process, testing methods, quality control, and common defects found in heavy-section ductile iron (DI) castings, along with analyses of industrial examples. The common defects include shrinkage defects, graphite-particle-related defects, and chunk graphite defects. The recommended chemical compositions for certain section thicknesses in ductile iron grades are presented in a table. The article illustrates the relationship between microstructure and mechanical properties of DI by using either industrial examples or castings produced under laboratory conditions.

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Chantal Labrecque, Serge Grenier, Pierre-Marie Cabanne, Martin Gagné, Heavy-Section Ductile Iron Castings, Cast Iron Science and Technology, Vol 1A, ASM Handbook, Edited By Doru M. Stefanescu, ASM International, 2017, p 629–644,

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