Solid particle erosion (SPE) is the loss of material that results from repeated impact of solid particles energized in a carrier fluid. This article reviews important SPE variables, their effects for different classes of materials, composites and coatings, and the mechanisms and theories proposed to explain SPE. It discusses the SPE of metals, steels, and ceramics, as well as erosion of alloys with coarse, nominally two-phase microstructures in which the second-phase particles (SPPs) are typically large compared with the dimensions of the damage zone created by the impact of one particle. The article summarizes the erosion characteristics of polymer matrix composites (PMCs), metal matrix composites (MMCs), ceramic matrix composites (CMCs), and erosion-resistant coatings. The combination of parameters included in most erosion models is also summarized.