Adhesion, Friction, and Wear in Low-Pressure and Vacuum Environments
This article discusses the adhesion behavior of materials in low-pressure and vacuum environments and provides a schematic illustration of an apparatus for measuring adhesion and friction in ultrahigh vacuum. It describes the effects of low-oxygen pressures and vacuum environments on adhesion and friction, as well as the effects of defined exposure to oxygen on friction. The article discusses the wear of various metals in contact with ceramics, and alloying element effects on friction, wear, and transfer of materials. It also describes studies that characterize the contributions of surface contamination and chemical changes to tribology in low-pressure and vacuum environments.