Wear by Rolling, Sliding, or Impact
This article provides a broad overview of sliding and adhesive wear, its processes, and its control, with special attention to three general classes of materials: metals, ceramics, and polymers. It discusses the ways in which materials can be damaged and removed during sliding contact. The article explains the physical and chemical nature of sliding surfaces. It presents wear equations, design criteria, and criteria for selection of materials. The article also describes the factors that affect wear performance of hybrid sliding systems. It concludes by providing general guidelines to prevent the sliding and adhesive wear in metals, polymers, and ceramics.
Fretting is the small-amplitude oscillatory movement that can occur between contacting surfaces, which are nominally at rest. This article discusses fretting wear in mechanical components and the mechanisms of fretting wear. It describes the role of fretting conditions, such as fretting duration, slip amplitude, normal load, fretting frequency, contact geometry, type of vibration, and surface finish, as well as the role of environmental conditions. The article reviews the influence of an aqueous environment on the mechanism of fretting. The steps that can be taken to reduce or eliminate damage due to fretting are extremely diverse. The article presents some general indications of how to address the fretting wear problem.