This article begins with the basic concept of friction and with the general approaches that can be used to control or minimize it. It focuses on the factors influencing rolling friction: surface topography, composition, subsurface microstructure, and lubrication conditions. The article reviews the microscopic mechanisms generating friction. It concludes by discussing the three components of rolling friction: microslip at the interface, anelastic hyteresis losses, and surface roughness.
This article describes the numerous techniques used to measure friction. It provides a brief description of the historical development of friction testing. The article discusses the tests and equipment available for friction testing. It explains the procedural considerations that should be addressed to ensure that valid data are derived from a friction test. The article presents definitions of terms commonly used in tribology such as static friction, kinetic coefficient of friction, stick-slip behavior, and lubricated friction. It provides information on the precautions that must be taken to ensure valid test results. The article also describes how to report data and how to analyze these data.