This article focuses on lubricants classified as either internal combustion engine or nonengine lubricants, and the lubricant additives. The functional groups of chemically active and inert additives, as well as friction modifiers and other additives, are described in detail. The chemically active additives include dispersants, detergents, antiwear, and extreme-pressure agents, oxidation inhibitors, and rust and corrosion inhibitors. The chemically inert additives include emulsifiers, demulsifiers, pour-point depressants, foam inhibitors, and viscosity improvers. The article also discusses the multifunctional nature of additives and concludes with information on lubricant formulation.
Ewa A. Bardasz, Lubricant Additives and Their Functions, Friction, Lubrication, and Wear Technology, Vol 18, ASM Handbook, Edited By George E. Totten, ASM International, 2017, p 135–149, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006405
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