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This article discusses the application of friction stir processing (FSP) and friction surfacing for tribological components. It describes the three critical aspects involved in the application of FSP for near-surface material modifications intended for tribological applications. These include tools, processing parameters, and machines. The article also discusses the equipment and processing parameters for friction surfacing. It describes various hybrid stir processing techniques that involve preheating of the workpiece material, especially relatively hard and high-strength ones. The article presents a partial list of surface-modification methods based on FSP. The partial list includes surface hardening, surface composites, and additive coating. The article also provides information on generation of residual stresses in metallic materials and alloys form different variants of FSP.

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Oyelayo O. Ajayi, Cinta Lorenzo-Martin, Friction Stir Processing and Surfacing, Friction, Lubrication, and Wear Technology, Vol 18, ASM Handbook, Edited By George E. Totten, ASM International, 2017, p 696–705,

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