This article focuses on friction and wear of automotive and aircraft brakes. It provides a comparison of friction and wear behaviors, frictional characteristics, and frictional performance of the friction materials. The article describes the components of brake friction materials and the classifications of brake lining materials. It discusses the effect of formulation compositions and manufacturing processes and the effect of braking operation conditions. The article provides information on aircraft brake linings, which operate under a wide range of kinetic energy conditions. The morphology effect of graphite on automotive brake drum and disk is explained. The article also describes the characteristics of specific wear rates for both normal and local cast iron in automotive brake drums and disk rotors. It provides information on noises, vibrations, and harshness caused by brake pads. The article concludes with information on physical and chemical testing of brakes and toxicity of brake formulation and regulations.