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This article first describes surface forces, and the methods of measuring them, followed by a discussion on adhesion. It discusses the instrumental requirements and techniques, including Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), used for the measurement of surface forces. Measurements of surface roughness, with AFM, can provide a precise picture of surface roughness and can be used as input for contact mechanics computer models. The article also describes microscale adhesion and adhesion measurement methods using microelectromechanical systems technologies. It reviews certain considerations used for the measurement of adhesion, such as fundamental adhesion measurements, history dependence and sample preparation, and practical adhesion measurements. The article describes various arrangements that can be employed in adhesion tests.

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W. Merlijn van Spengen, H.R. Fischer, Measurement of Surface Forces and Adhesion, Friction, Lubrication, and Wear Technology, Vol 18, ASM Handbook, Edited By George E. Totten, ASM International, 2017, p 56–66,

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