Friction and Wear of Machine Components
Bearings are usually provided where a specific spatial relationship (alignment) must be maintained between the parts or where a force is to be transmitted from one part to the other. This article introduces the general types and configuration of sliding bearings, bearing materials, and the practical aspects and solutions in the friction, lubrication, and wear mitigation of sliding bearings. The lubrication of bearings includes thick-film lubrication, thin-film lubrication, and boundary lubrication. The article concludes with a discussion on the effects of material elasticity on the lubrication of bearings.
Rolling-element bearings, also called rolling bearings and antifriction bearings, tend to have very low friction characteristics compared to plain bearings or simple sliding bearings. This article discusses the types of rolling-element bearings, namely, ball bearings and roller bearings. It provides information on the bearing component materials. The article describes the lubrication requirements and lubrication methods, namely, elastohydrodynamic lubrication and grease lubrication. It reviews the adjustment factors influencing fatigue life of the bearing. The article also provides information on bearing load ratings, standard bearing geometries, rolling bearing friction factors, and wear and its control methods. It concludes with a discussion on damage modes of bearings.