Tool and Die Wear
This article describes friction force as a function of normal force in dry forming. It focuses on metal forming operations usually classified as cold working and hot working based on metallurgical considerations. The article discusses surface flattening and roughening of workpiece asperities in metal forming. It presents advanced tribology models and results for friction in isothermal forging operations in which the tooling is maintained at a temperature close to that of the workpiece. The article provides information on heat transfer models. It discusses the effect of wear in manufacturing processes. The article concludes with information on the main categories of tool and die materials used for a variety of manufacturing application.