Failures from Various Mechanisms and Related Environmental Factors
Analysis of the failure of a metal structure or part usually requires identification of the type of failure. Failure can occur by one or more of several mechanisms, including surface damage (such as corrosion or wear), elastic or plastic distortion, and fracture. This leads to a wide range of failures, including fatigue failure, distortion failure, wear failure, corrosion failure, stress-corrosion cracking, liquid-metal embrittlement, hydrogen-damage failure, corrosion-fatigue failure, and elevated-temperature failure. This article describes the classification of fractures on a macroscopic scale as ductile fractures, brittle fractures, fatigue fractures, and fractures resulting from the combined effects of stress and environment.