This article provides general guidelines for casting design to provide progressive solidification, minimize heat concentration, eliminate cores, and prevent distortion. Casting design also affects tolerances. Casting tolerances depend on the alloy being poured, the size of the casting, and the molding method used. Designers can predict the effect of the design on the structure of the final part using solidification simulation models, namely finite element and finite difference models, and rapid prototyping. The article concludes with a short note on how the quality is assured in the foundry.
This article describes the presses that are mechanically or hydraulically powered and used for producing sheet, strip, and plate from sheet metal. It also presents the JIC standards for presses, compares the presses based on power source, details the selection criteria and provides information on the various drive systems and the auxiliary equipment. It describes the selection of die materials and lubricants for sheet metal forming and provides information on the lubrication mechanisms and selection with a list of lubricant types for forming of specific sheet materials of ferrous or nonferrous metals. The article reviews the various types of forming processes such as blanking, piercing, fine-edge blanking, press bending, press forming, forming by multiple-slide machines, deep drawing, stretch forming, spinning, rubber-pad forming, three-roll forming, contour roll forming, drop hammer forming, explosive forming, electromagnetic forming, and superplastic forming.