Structure and Properties of Metals
Chemical elements are the basic chemical substances; that is, they cannot be decomposed by chemical change or made by chemical union. These elements follow a periodic pattern related to the atomic mass of each that allows them to be arranged into a convenient table. This article includes a series of tables: the first gives the names and symbols of the elements in alphabetical order and the second lists the elements in order by atomic number and give the atomic weight for each. The periodic table of the elements also is included in the article.
Crystal structure is the arrangement of atoms or molecules in the solid state that involves consideration of defects, or abnormalities, in idealized atomic/molecular arrangements. The three-dimensional aggregation of unit cells in the crystal forms a space lattice or Bravais lattice. Providing a brief review of the terms and basic concepts associated with crystal structures, this article discusses some of the significant defects obstructing plastic flow in real crystals, namely point defects, line defects, stacking faults, twins, and cold work. Several tables provide information on the crystal structures and lattice parameters of allotropes of metallic elements.