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Forging machines use a wide variety of hammers, presses, and dies to produce products with the desired shape, size, and geometry. This article discusses the major types of hammers (gravity-drop, power-drop, high speed, and open-die forging), and presses (mechanical, hydraulic, screw-type, and multiple-ram). It further discusses the technologies used in the design of dies, terminology, and materials selection for dies for the most common hot-forging processes, particularly those using vertical presses, hammers, and horizontal forging machines. A brief section is included on computer-aided design in the forging industry. Additionally, the article reviews specific characteristics, process limitations, advantages, and disadvantages of the most common forging processes, namely hot upset forging, roll forging, radial forging, rotary forging, isothermal and hot-die forging, precision forging, and cold forging.

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1998. "Forging Machinery, Dies, and Processes", Metals Handbook Desk Edition, 2nd Ed., Joseph R. Davis

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