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Characteristics of stainless steel that affect its formability include yield strength, tensile strength, and ductility, in addition to the effect of work hardening on these properties. This article discusses the forming process of stainless steel, heat-resistant alloys and refractory metals, detailing the major aspects of forming, including formability, lubrication, and forming methods and tools. The effect of factors such as alloy condition, cold reduction, forming direction (in the case of heat-resistant alloys) and temperature (in the case of refractory metals) on formability is also discussed.

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Forming of Stainless Steel and Heat-Resistant Alloys, Metals Handbook Desk Edition, 2nd Ed., 2nd ed., Edited By Joseph R. Davis, ASM International, 1998, p 825–829,

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