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Microstructural analysis is the combined characterization of the morphology, elemental composition, and crystallography of microstructural features through the use of a microscope. This article reviews three types of the most commonly used electron microscopies in metallurgical studies, namely scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, and transmission electron microscopy. It briefly describes the operating principles, instrumentation which includes energy dispersive X-ray detectors, spatial resolution, typical use of the techniques, elemental analysis detection threshold and precision, limitations, sample requirements, and the capabilities of related techniques.

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K.H. Eckelmeyer, 1998. "Microstructural Analysis", Metals Handbook Desk Edition, 2nd Ed., Joseph R. Davis

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