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This article discusses the production of low-alloy steel parts by powder forging, focusing on the material considerations, such as hardenability and inclusion assessment; and process considerations, including sintering and reheating, metal flow, and secondary operations. It presents the mechanical property data for copper and graphite powders mixed with an iron powder base to produce materials that generally contain 2″ Cu, including tensile, impact, and fatigue properties. Heat treatment procedures used in developing the properties of the prealloyed powder forged materials are also covered. Finally, the article describes the process steps and cost considerations in metal injection molding (MIM) and tabulates the composition, and mechanical properties of MIM low-alloy steels.

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1998. "High-Density Ferrous Powder Metallurgy Parts", Metals Handbook Desk Edition, 2nd Ed., Joseph R. Davis

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