Skip to Main Content
Skip Nav Destination


The overall chemical composition of metals and alloys is most commonly determined by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and optical emission spectroscopy (OES), and combustion and inert gas fusion analysis. This article provides information on the capabilities, uses, detection threshold and precision methods, and sample requirements. The amount of material that needs to be sampled, operating principles, and limitations of the stated methods are also discussed.

You do not currently have access to this chapter.
Don't already have an account? Register
Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal