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The overall chemical composition of metals and alloys is most commonly determined by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and optical emission spectroscopy (OES), and combustion and inert gas fusion analysis. This article provides information on the capabilities, uses, detection threshold and precision methods, and sample requirements. The amount of material that needs to be sampled, operating principles, and limitations of the stated methods are also discussed.

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K.H. Eckelmeyer, 1998. "Bulk Elemental Analysis", Metals Handbook Desk Edition, 2nd Ed., Joseph R. Davis

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