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This article provides a general introduction of materials characterization and describes the principles and applications of a limited number of techniques that are most commonly used to characterize the composition and structure of metals used in engineering systems. It briefly describes the classification of materials characterization methods including, bulk elemental characterization, bulk structural characterization, microstructural characterization, and surface characterization. Further, the article reviews the selection of materials characterization methods most commonly used with metals.

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K.H. Eckelmeyer, 1998. "Introduction and Overview of Materials Characterization", Metals Handbook Desk Edition, 2nd Ed., Joseph R. Davis

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