Quantifying microstructural parameters has received considerable attention and success in developing procedures and using such data to develop structure/property relationships has been achieved. This article reviews many of the simple stereological counting measurements of volume fraction, grain structure (two-phase grain structures, and nonequiaxed grain structures), grain size, and inclusion content. It also reviews simple relationships between number of grains per unit area, number of intersections of a line of known length with particle or grain, and number of interceptions of particles or grains by a line of known length.
George F. Vander Voort, Measurement of Microstructure, Metals Handbook Desk Edition, 2nd Ed., 2nd ed., Edited By Joseph R. Davis, ASM International, 1998, p 1405–1409, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003248
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