Liquid-penetrant inspection is a nondestructive method used to find discontinuities that are open to the surface of solid, essentially nonporous materials. This article describes the physical principles and the process of liquid-penetrant inspection. It also describes the basic penetrant systems, such as the water-washable system, the post-emulsifiable system, and the solvent-removable system. The article provides information on the liquid-penetrant materials, emulsifiers, solvent cleaners, and developers. It details the equipment requirements, selection of penetrant system, and specifications and standards for the liquid-penetrant inspection.
Liquid-Penetrant Inspection, Metals Handbook Desk Edition, 2nd Ed., 2nd ed., Edited By Joseph R. Davis, ASM International, 1998, p 1260–1267, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003231
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