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Forging is the process of working hot metal between dies, usually under successive blows and sometimes by continuous squeezing. This article describes the material selection criteria, quality assurance tests for forged components, and the dimensional tolerances of closed-die steel forgings. It provides an overview of the mechanical properties of wrought materials. The article also includes information on the fundamentals of hammer and press forgings and the design of hot upset forgings.

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1998. "Closed-Die Steel Forgings", Metals Handbook Desk Edition, 2nd Ed., Joseph R. Davis

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