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This article describes the operation and capabilities of surface analysis methods of metals, including scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, transmission electron microscopy, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It provides information on the capabilities, typical uses, spatial resolution, elemental analysis detection threshold and precision, limitations, sample requirements, and operating principles of the scanning auger microprobe.

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K.H. Eckelmeyer, 1998. "Surface Analysis", Metals Handbook Desk Edition, 2nd Ed., Joseph R. Davis

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