Microwaves (or radar waves) are a form of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths between 1000 cm and 1 mm in free space. One of the first important uses of microwaves in nondestructive evaluation was for components such as waveguides, attenuators, cavities, antennas, and antenna covers (radomes). This article focuses on the microwave inspection methods that were subsequently developed for evaluation of moisture content in dielectric materials; thickness measurements of thin metallic coatings on dielectric substrates; and detection of voids, delaminations, macroporosity, inclusions, and other flaws in plastic or ceramic materials. It also discusses the advantages and disadvantages and the general approaches that have been used in the development of microwave nondestructive inspection.
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