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Cast irons are primarily iron alloys that contain more than 2″ carbon and from 1 to 3″ silicon. This article provides a description of the iron-iron carbide-silicon system and discusses the classification, composition, and characteristics of cast irons, such as gray, ductile, malleable, compacted graphite, and white cast iron. A table shows the correspondence between the commercial and microstructural classifications as well as the final processing stage in obtaining common cast irons.

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1998. "Basic Metallurgy of Cast Iron", Metals Handbook Desk Edition, Joseph R. Davis

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