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Cast irons primarily are iron alloys that contain more than 2% carbon and from 1 to 3% silicon. This article provides a description of iron-iron carbide-silicon system; and discusses the classification, composition, and characteristics of cast irons, such as gray, ductile, malleable, compacted graphite, and white cast iron. A table shows the correspondence between commercial and microstructural classification, as well as final processing stage in obtaining common cast irons.

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1998. "Basic Metallurgy of Cast Iron", Metals Handbook Desk Edition, 2nd Ed., Joseph R. Davis

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