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Eddy-current inspection is a nondestructive evaluation method based on the principles of electromagnetic induction. Eddy-current methods are used to identify or differentiate a wide variety of physical, structural, and metallurgical conditions in electrically conductive ferromagnetic and nonferromagnetic metals and metal parts. Giving a brief introduction on the uses of eddy-current inspection, this article discusses the operating principles and the principal operating variables encountered in eddy-current inspection, including coil impedance, electrical conductivity, magnetic permeability, lift-off and fill factors, edge effect, and skin effect. It further describes different aspects of eddy current testing such as the selection of inspection frequencies and the types and configurations of inspection coils. The article also deals with the eddy current instrumentation and the discontinuities that are detectable by eddy-current methods.

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