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This article reviews nondestructive testing (NDT) and inspection techniques, namely liquid penetrant, magnetic particle, ultrasonics, X-ray, eddy current, visual and radiography that are commonly used to detect and evaluate flaws or leaks in an engineering system. This article compares the merits and limitations of these techniques and describes the various uses of NDT, including leak detection, metrology, structure or microstructure characterization, stress-strain response determination, and rapid identification of metals and alloys.

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1998. "Guide to Nondestructive Testing and Inspection Methods", Metals Handbook Desk Edition, Joseph R. Davis

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