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Low-expansion alloys are materials with dimensions that do not change appreciably with temperature. Alloys included in this category are various binary iron-nickel alloys and several ternary alloys of iron combined with nickel-chromium, nickel-cobalt, or cobalt-chromium alloying. Low-expansion alloys are used in various applications such as rods and tapes for geodetic surveying, moving parts that require control of expansion (such as pistons for some internal-combustion engines), bimetal strip, components for electronic devices etc. This article discusses the properties, composition, and applications of iron-nickel low-expansion alloys (Invar), as well as other special alloys, including iron-nickel-chromium alloys, iron-nickel-cobalt alloys, iron-cobalt-chromium alloys, and high-strength, controlled-expansion alloys. It covers the factors affecting coefficient of thermal expansion of iron-nickel alloys, including heat treatment and cold drawing. Magnetic, physical, thermal, electrical and mechanical properties of iron-nickel alloys are also covered.

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