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Ores, which consist of the primary valuable mineral, predominant gangue content, valuable by-products, and detrimental impurities, are extracted and directed to mineral processing. This article describes the mineral processing facilities, such as crushers, grinders, concentrators, separators, and flotation devices that are used for particle size reduction, separation of particles according to their settling rates in fluids and dewatering of concentrate particles. It explains the basic principles, flow diagrams, ore concentrate preparation methods, and equipment of major types of metallurgical processes, including pyrometallurgical, hydrometallurgical, and electrometallurgical processes.

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B. Mishra, 1998. "Extractive Metallurgy", Metals Handbook Desk Edition, 2nd Ed., Joseph R. Davis

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