Ultrasonic inspection is a nondestructive method in which beams of high-frequency acoustic energy are introduced into a material to detect surface and subsurface flaws, to measure the thickness of the material, and to measure the distance to a flaw. This article provides a detailed account of ultrasonic flaw detectors, including ultrasonic transducers and types of search units and couplants. The article describes pulse-echo and transmission inspection methods and data interpretation. The general characteristics of ultrasonic waves and the factors influencing ultrasonic inspection are also addressed. The article concludes with a review of the advantages and disadvantages of ultrasonic inspection compared with other methods applications of the technique.
Ultrasonic Inspection, Metals Handbook Desk Edition, 2nd Ed., 2nd ed., Edited By Joseph R. Davis, ASM International, 1998, p 1282–1290, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003236
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