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Premanent magnet refers to solid materials that have sufficiently high resistance to demagnetizing fields and sufficiently high magnetic flux output to provide useful and stable magnetic fields. Permanent magnet materials include a variety of alloys, intermetallics, and ceramics. This article discusses the composition, properties, and applications of permanent magnetic materials, such as hysteresis alloys used in motors. It primarily focuses on the stability of magnetic fields that influences reversible and irreversible losses in magnetization with time, and the choice of magnet material, component shape and magnetic circuit arrangement.

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Permanent Magnet Materials, Metals Handbook Desk Edition, 2nd Ed., 2nd ed., Edited By Joseph R. Davis, ASM International, 1998, p 644–650,

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