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All tool steels are heat treated to develop specific combinations of wear resistance, resistance to deformation or breaking under loads, and resistance to softening at elevated temperature. This article describes recommended heat treating practices, such as normalizing, annealing, austenitizing, quenching, preheating, and tempering commonly employed in certain steels. These are water-hardening tool steels, shock-resisting tool steels, oil-hardening cold-work tool steels, medium-alloy air-hardening cold-work tool steels, high-carbon high-chromium cold-work tool steels, hot-work tool steels, high-speed tool steels, low-alloy special-purpose tool steels, and mold steels. The article presents tables that list the temperature ranges, holding time, and hardness values for all of these heat treating processes.

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1998. "Heat Treating of Tool Steels", Metals Handbook Desk Edition, 2nd Ed., Joseph R. Davis

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