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Physical vapor deposition (PVD) coatings are harder than any metal and are used in applications that cannot tolerate even microscopic wear losses. This article describes the three most common PVD processes: thermal evaporation, sputtering, and ion plating. It also discusses ion implantation in the context of research and development applications.

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1998. "Physical Vapor Deposition", Metals Handbook Desk Edition, 2nd Ed., Joseph R. Davis

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