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This article describes the operation and capabilities of surface analysis methods of metals, including scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, transmission electron microscopy, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It also describes capabilities, typical uses, spatial resolution, elemental analysis detection threshold and precision, limitations, sample requirements, and operating principles of the scanning auger microprobe.

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1998. "Materials Characterization", Metals Handbook Desk Edition, Joseph R. Davis

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