This article reviews nondestructive testing (NDT) and inspection techniques, namely liquid penetrant, magnetic particle, ultrasonics, X-ray, eddy current, visual and radiography that are commonly used to detect and evaluate flaws or leaks in an engineering system. This article compares the merits and limitations of these techniques and describes the various uses of NDT, including leak detection, metrology, structure or microstructure characterization, stress-strain response determination, and rapid identification of metals and alloys.
Leak testing is used to determine the rate at which a liquid or gas penetrates from inside a component or assembly to the outside, or vice versa. This article discusses the type of leaks, namely real leaks, and virtual leaks. It describes the leak testing of fluid systems at pressure through acoustic method and bubble testing. The article gives a short note on types of leak detectors, sulfur hexafluoride detectors and mass-spectrometer. It tabulates the pressure and vacuum system leak-testing methods and discusses the application of gas detectors in leak testing.