Metal casting is the manufacturing method in which a metal or an alloy is melted, poured into a mold, and allowed to solidify. Typical uses of castings include municipal hardware, water distribution systems (pipes, pumps, and valves), automotive components (engine blocks, brakes, steering and suspension components, etc.), prosthetics, and gas turbine engine hardware. This introduction explains the steps involved in making a casting using a simplified flow diagram, and discusses the ferrous and nonferrous alloys used for metal casting.
Solidification is a comprehensive process of transformation of the melt of metals and alloys into a solid piece, involving formation of dendrites, segregation which involves change in composition, zone formation in final structure of the casting, and microporosity formation during shrinkage. This article describes the imperfections in the solidification process including porosity, inclusions, oxide films, secondary phases, hot tears, and metal penetration. It talks about the purpose of the gating system and the risering system in the casting process.