This article discusses the ferromagnetic properties of soft magnetic materials, explaining the effects of impurities, alloying elements, heat treatment, grain size, and grain orientation on soft magnetic materials. It describes the types of soft magnetic materials, which include high-purity iron, low-carbon irons, silicon (electrical) steels, nickel-iron alloys, iron-cobalt alloys, ferritic stainless steels, amorphous metals, and ferrites (ceramics). Finally, the article provides a short note on alloys for magnetic temperature compensation.
Premanent magnet refers to solid materials that have sufficiently high resistance to demagnetizing fields and sufficiently high magnetic flux output to provide useful and stable magnetic fields. Permanent magnet materials include a variety of alloys, intermetallics, and ceramics. This article discusses the composition, properties, and applications of permanent magnetic materials, such as hysteresis alloys used in motors. It primarily focuses on the stability of magnetic fields that influences reversible and irreversible losses in magnetization with time, and the choice of magnet material, component shape and magnetic circuit arrangement.