Processing and Characterization of Ceramic Powders
This article explains how ceramic powders are made. It begins by briefly describing the raw materials used in structural clay products, whitewares, refractories, and advanced ceramics. It then examines various additives that promote uniformity at different stages of the process. After a description of the comminution process (wet and dry milling methods), it discusses batching and mixing operations and granulation methods. The article also deals with the effect of process variables and the steps involved in chemical synthesis, including preparation from solution and gas-phase reactions, filtration and washing, and powder recovery techniques. It concludes with a discussion on characterization, centering on size distribution analysis, specific surface area, density, porosity chemical composition, phase, and surface composition.