Skip to Main Content
Skip Nav Destination


Thermoforming is a manufacturing process in which thermoplastic sheets are heated, softened, clamped onto a mold, and made to conform to the shape of the mold or forming tool. It is ideally suited to large-volume runs of small items. This article focuses on major phases of thermoforming, namely, sheet transportation, heating, forming/cooling, and trimming, and different thermoforming techniques: basic female forming; basic male forming; matched-mold thermoforming; plug-assist thermoforming; pressure bubble plug-assist vacuum thermoforming; vacuum snapback thermoforming; air-slip thermoforming; and trapped-sheet, contact heat, and pressure thermoforming. It concludes with a discussion on machines and the economic concerns of thermoforming.

You do not currently have access to this chapter.
Don't already have an account? Register

Thermoforming, Engineered Materials Handbook Desk Edition, Edited By Michelle M. Gauthier, ASM International, 1995, p 327–331,

Download citation file:

Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal