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This article describes testing and characterization methods of ceramics for chemical analysis, phase analysis, microstructural analysis, macroscopic property characterization, strength and proof testing, thermophysical property testing, and nondestructive evaluation techniques. Chemical analysis is carried out by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and plasma-emission spectrophotometry. Phase analysis is done by X-ray diffraction, spectroscopic methods, thermal analysis, and quantitative analysis. Techniques used for microstructural analysis include reflected light microscopy using polarized light, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive analysis of X-rays, and wavelength dispersive analysis of X-rays. Macroscopic property characterization involves measurement of porosity, density, and surface area....

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