Applications, Processing, and Characterization of Ceramics
Traditional ceramics, one of two general classes, are commonly used in high-volume manufacturing to make building materials, household products, and various industrial goods. Although there is a tendency to equate traditional ceramics with low technology, sophisticated processes and advanced manufacturing techniques are often used where these materials are employed. This article examines several traditional ceramics, including structural clay, whiteware, glazes, enamels, portland cements, and concrete. It also provides a detailed account of fabrication methods, properties, and applications. As an example, common applications for structural clay include facing materials, load-bearing units, pavers, and ceramic tiles.
This article explains how ceramic powders are made. It begins by briefly describing the raw materials used in structural clay products, whitewares, refractories, and advanced ceramics. It then examines various additives that promote uniformity at different stages of the process. After a description of the comminution process (wet and dry milling methods), it discusses batching and mixing operations and granulation methods. The article also deals with the effect of process variables and the steps involved in chemical synthesis, including preparation from solution and gas-phase reactions, filtration and washing, and powder recovery techniques. It concludes with a discussion on characterization, centering on size distribution analysis, specific surface area, density, porosity chemical composition, phase, and surface composition.