Mechanical Testing and Evaluation
Bend tests are conducted to determine the ductility or strength of a material. This article discusses the different bend tests with emphasis on test methods, apparatuses, procedures, specimen preparation, and interpretation and reporting of results. The types of bend tests discussed are bending ductility tests, bending strength tests (ASTM E 855), bend tests as per EN 12384 and JIS 3130, and computer-aided bending tests. The three standard bending strength tests are the cantilever beam bend test, the three-point bend test, and the four-point bend test. European Standard EN 12384 specifies a bend test to determine the modulus of elasticity in bending. Japanese Industrial Standard JIS 3130 specifies two tests to determine the elastic limit of spring plate or strip: the repeated deflection spring test and the moment type spring test.