Mechanical Testing and Evaluation
An important activity in metalworking facilities is the testing of raw materials for characteristics that ensure the integrity and quality of the products made. This article reviews the common material parameters that can have a direct or indirect influence on workability and product quality. These include strength, ductility, hardness, strain-hardening exponent, strain-rate effects, temperature effects, and hydrostatic pressure effects. The article also reviews the material behavior characteristics typically determined by mechanical testing methods. It discusses various mechanical testing methods, including the tension test, plane-strain tension test, compression test, plane-strain compression test, partial-width indentation test, and torsion test. Aspects of testing particularly relevant to workability and quality control for metalworking processes are also described. Finally, the article details the various factors influencing workability in bulk deformation processes and formability in sheet-metal forming.