Mechanical Testing and Evaluation
This article discusses the standard test methods that can be applied to many types of welds: tension, bending, impact, and toughness testing. It provides information on four qualification stages, namely, the weld material qualification, base material qualification, the weld procedure qualification, and the weld service assessment. The article describes two general types of measurements for residual stress in welds: locally destructive techniques and nondestructive techniques. Locally destructive techniques include hole drilling, chip machining, and block sectioning. Nondestructive techniques include X-ray diffraction, neutron diffraction, Barkhausen noise analysis, and ultrasonic propagation analysis. The article concludes with an overview of weldability testing.