Mechanical Testing and Evaluation
This article discusses the need of and the strain basis for residual stress measurements and describes the nature of residual stress fields. A generic destructive stress relief procedure is described along with the issues generally involved in each procedural step. The article presents the stress reconstruction equations to be used for computational reconstruction of the stress fields from the measured strains for the destructive methods. It provides information on the sectioning, material removal, strain measurement, and chemical methods of residual stress measurement. The article reviews the semidestructive methods of residual stress measurement: blind hole drilling and ring coring, spot annealing, and X-ray diffraction techniques. Nondestructive methods such as neutron diffraction, ultrasonic velocity, and magnetic Barkhausen noise techniques, are also discussed.