Mechanical Testing and Evaluation
THE TENSION TEST is one of the most commonly used tests for evaluating materials. The material characteristics obtained from tension tests are used for quality control in production, for ranking performance of structural materials, for evaluation of alloys, and for dealing with the static-strength requirements of design. This article describes the stress-strain behavior during a tension test and provides the definition of terms such as stress, force, strain, and elongation. It explains the tensile properties obtained from the test results: the tensile strength and yield strength, which includes offset yield strength, extension-under-load yield strength, and upper yield strength. The article concludes with a description of the general procedures for conducting the tension test based on ASTM standards and the variability of tensile properties.