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This article provides an overview of the relationships between torque, angle-of-turn, tension, and friction and explains how they are measured and evaluated. It focuses on the principle, test equipment, procedure, evaluation, and test report of various testing methods, namely, friction coefficient testing, torque tension testing, locknut testing, and angular ductility and rotational capacity tests. The article reviews the basic methods and fundamental principles for mechanical testing of externally and internally threaded fasteners and bolted joints. The test methods for externally threaded fasteners include product hardness, proof load, axial and wedge tension testing of full-sized products, tension testing of machined test specimens, and total extension at fracture testing. Product hardness, proof load, and cone proof-load test are the test methods for internally threaded fasteners. The article concludes with a description of torque-angle signature analysis and the specification of measurement accuracy for torque and clamp force.

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Ralph S. Shoberg, 2000. "Mechanical Testing of Threaded Fasteners and Bolted Joints", Mechanical Testing and Evaluation, Howard Kuhn, Dana Medlin

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